Anti-icing is the process of protecting against the formation of frozen contaminant, snow, ice, or slush on a surface.

Engine Anti-Ice

The anti-icing system found on most turbine-powered helicopters uses engine bleed air. Bleed air in turbine engines is compressed air taken from within the engine, after the compressor stage(s) and before the fuel is injected in the burners. The bleed air flows through the inlet guide vanes and to the inlet itself to prevent ice formation on the hollow vanes. A pilot-controlled, electrically operated valve on the compressor controls the air flow. Engine anti-ice systems should be on prior to entry into icing conditions and remain on until exiting those conditions. Use of the engine anti-ice system should always be in accordance with the proper RFM.

Airframe Anti-Ice

Airframe and rotor anti-icing may be found on some larger helicopters, but it is not common due to the complexity, expense, and weight of such systems. The leading edges of rotors may be heated with bleed air or electrical elements to prevent ice formation. Balance and control problems might arise if ice is allowed to form unevenly on the blades. Research is being done on lightweight ice-phobic (anti-icing) materials or coatings. These materials placed in strategic areas could significantly reduce ice formation and improve performance.

The pitot tube on a helicopter is very susceptible to ice and moisture buildup. To prevent this, pitot tubes are usually equipped with a heating system that uses an electrical element to heat the tube.


Deicing is the process of removing frozen contaminant, snow, ice, and/or slush from a surface. Deicing of the helicopter fuselage and rotor blades is critical prior to starting. Helicopters that are unsheltered by hangars are subject to frost, snow, freezing drizzle, and freezing rain that can cause icing of rotor blades and fuselages, rendering them unflyable until cleaned. Asymmetrical shedding of ice from the blades can lead to component failure, and shedding ice can be dangerous as it may hit any structures or people that are around the helicopter. The tail rotor is very vulnerable to shedding ice damage. Thorough preflight checks should be made before starting the rotor blades and if any ice was removed prior to starting, ensure that the flight controls move freely. While in-flight, helicopters equipped with deicing systems should be activated immediately after entry into an icing condition.