Minimum En Route Altitudes (MEAs), Minimum Reception Altitudes (MRAs), Maximum Authorized Altitudes (MAAs), Minimum Obstacle Clearance Altitudes (MOCAs), Minimum Turning Altitudes (MTAs) and Minimum Crossing Altitudes (MCAs) are established by the FAA for instrument flight along Federal airways, as well as some off-airway routes. The altitudes are established after it has been determined that the NAVAIDs to be used are adequate and so oriented on the airways or routes that signal coverage is acceptable, and that flight can be maintained within prescribed route widths.

For IFR operations, regulations require that pilots operate their aircraft at or above minimum altitudes. Except when necessary for takeoff or landing, pilots may not operate an aircraft under IFR below applicable minimum altitudes, or if no applicable minimum altitude is prescribed, in the case of operations over an area designated as mountainous, an altitude of 2,000 feet above the highest obstacle within a horizontal distance of 4 NM from the course to be flown. In any other case, an altitude of 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle within a horizontal distance of 4 NM from the course to be flown must be maintained as a minimum altitude. If both a MEA and a MOCA are prescribed for a particular route or route segment, pilots may operate an aircraft below the MEA down to, but not below, the MOCA, only when within 22 NM of the VOR. When climbing to a higher minimum IFR altitude (MIA), pilots must begin climbing immediately after passing the point beyond which that minimum altitude applies, except when ground obstructions intervene, the point beyond which that higher minimum altitude applies must be crossed at or above the applicable MCA for the VOR.
If on an IFR flight plan, but cleared by ATC to maintain VFR conditions on top, pilots may not fly below minimum en route IFR altitudes. Minimum altitude rules are designed to ensure safe vertical separation between the aircraft and the terrain. These minimum altitude rules apply to all IFR flights, whether in IFR or VFR weather conditions, and whether assigned a specific altitude or VFR conditions on top.

Minimum En Route Altitude (MEA)

The MEA is the lowest published altitude between radio fixes that assures acceptable navigational signal coverage and meets obstacle clearance requirements between those fixes. The MEA prescribed for a Federal airway or segment, RNAV low or high route, or other direct route applies to the entire width of the airway, segment, or route between the radio fixes defining the airway, segment, or route. MEAs for routes wholly contained within controlled airspace normally provide a buffer above the floor of controlled airspace consisting of at least 300 feet within transition areas and 500 feet within control areas. MEAs are established based upon obstacle clearance over terrain and manmade objects, adequacy of navigation facility performance, and communications requirements.

RNAV Minimum En Route Altitude

RNAV MEAs are depicted on some IFR en route low altitude charts, allowing both RNAV and non-RNAV pilots to use the same chart for instrument navigation.

Minimum Reception Altitude (MRA)

MRAs are determined by FAA flight inspection traversing an entire route of flight to establish the minimum altitude the navigation signal can be received for the route and for off-course NAVAID facilities that determine a fix. When the MRA at the fix is higher than the MEA, an MRA is established for the fix and is the lowest altitude at which an intersection can be determined.

Maximum Authorized Altitude (MAA)

An MAA is a published altitude representing the maximum usable altitude or flight level for an airspace structure or route segment. [Figure 1] It is the highest altitude on a Federal airway, jet route, RNAV low or high route, or other direct route for which an MEA is designated at which adequate reception of navigation signals is assured. MAAs represent procedural limits determined by technical limitations or other factors, such as limited airspace or frequency interference of ground-based facilities.
Aircraft IFR En Route Altitudes
Figure 1. Maximum authorized altitude (MAA)

Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude (MOCA)

The MOCA is the lowest published altitude in effect between fixes on VOR airways, off-airway routes, or route segments that meets obstacle clearance requirements for the entire route segment. [Figure 2] This altitude also assures acceptable navigational signal coverage only within 22 NM of a VOR. The MOCA seen on the en route chart may have been computed by adding the required obstacle clearance (ROC) to the controlling obstacle in the primary area or computed by using a TERPS chart if the controlling obstacle is located in the secondary area. This figure is then rounded to the nearest 100 foot increment (i.e., 2,049 feet becomes 2,000, and 2,050 feet becomes 2,100 feet). An extra 1,000 feet is added in mountainous areas, in most cases.
Aircraft IFR En Route Altitudes
Figure 2. Minimum obstacle clearance altitude (MOCA)
ATC controllers have an important role in helping pilots remain clear of obstructions. Controllers are instructed to issue a safety alert if the aircraft is in a position that, in their judgment, places the pilot in unsafe proximity to terrain, obstructions, or other aircraft. Once pilots inform ATC of action being taken to resolve the situation, the controller may discontinue the issuance of further alerts. A typical terrain/obstruction alert may sound like this: “(Aircraft call sign ), Low altitude alert. Check your altitude immediately. The MOCA in your area is 12,000.”

Minimum Turning Altitude (MTA)

Minimum turning altitude (MTA) is a charted altitude providing vertical and lateral obstruction clearance based on turn criteria over certain fixes, NAVAIDs, waypoints, and on charted route segments. [Figure 3] When a VHF airway or route terminates at a NAVAID or fix, the primary area extends beyond that termination point. When a change of course on VHF airways and routes is necessary, the en route obstacle clearance turning area extends the primary and secondary obstacle clearance areas to accommodate the turn radius of the aircraft. Since turns at or after fix passage may exceed airway and route boundaries, pilots are expected to adhere to airway and route protected airspace by leading turns early before a fix. The turn area provides obstacle clearance for both turn anticipation (turning prior to the fix) and flyover protection (turning after crossing the fix). This does not violate the requirement to fly the centerline of the airway. Many factors enter into the construction and application of the turning area to provide pilots with adequate obstacle clearance protection. These may include aircraft speed, the amount of turn versus NAVAID distance, flight track, curve radii, MEAs, and MTA. [Figure 4]
Aircraft IFR En Route Altitudes
Figure 3. Minimum turning altitude (MTA)
Aircraft IFR En Route Altitudes
Figure 4. Turning area at the intersection fix with NAVAID distance less than 51 NM
Due to increased airspeeds at 10,000 feet MSL or above, an expanded area in the vicinity of the turning fix is examined to ensure the published MEA is sufficient for obstacle clearance. In some locations (normally mountainous), terrain/obstacles in the expanded search area may obviate the published MEA and necessitate a higher minimum altitude while conducting the turning maneuver. Turning fixes requiring a higher MTA are charted with a flag along with accompanying text describing the MTA restriction. [Figure 3]
An MTA restriction normally consists of the ATS route leading to the turning fix, the ATS route leading from the turning fix, and an altitude (e.g., MTA V330 E TO V520 W 16000). When an MTA is applicable for the intended route of flight, pilots must ensure they are at or above the charted MTA prior to beginning the turn and maintain at or above the MTA until joining the centerline of the ATS route following the turn. Once established on the centerline following the turning fix, the MEA/MOCA determines the minimum altitude available for assignment.
An MTA may also preclude the use of a specific altitude or a range of altitudes during a turn. For example, the MTA may restrict the use of 10,000 through 11,000 feet MSL. In this case, any altitude greater than 11,000 feet MSL is unrestricted, as are altitudes less than 10,000 feet MSL provided MEA/MOCA requirements are satisfied.
All MTA information associated with the airway/route inbound to the turn fix/facility is put in the remarks section of FAA Form 8260-16, Transmittal of Airways/Route Data, using the following format [Figure 5]:
Aircraft IFR En Route Altitudes
Figure 5. Minimum turning altitude information located in the remarks section of FAA Form 8260-16 Transmittal of Airways/Route Data
#CHART: MTA V330 E TO V520 W 16000
(Document on V330 FAA Form 8260-16)
#CHART: MTA V465 NE TO V330 W OR V520 W 16000
(Document on V465 FAA Form 8260-16)
When an MTA is required by FAA Order 8260.3, paragraph 15-1-5c, enter the MTA information in the REMARKS section of FAA Form 8260-2, Radio Fix and Holding Data Record, as specified on the appropriate FAA Form 8260-16, Transmittal of Airways/Route Data, using the following format:
MTA: V330 E TO V520 W 16000
MTA: V465 NE TO V330 W OR V520 W 16000

Minimum Crossing Altitude (MCA)

An MCA is the lowest altitude at certain fixes at which the aircraft must cross when proceeding in the direction of a higher minimum en route IFR altitude. [Figure 6] When applicable, MCAs are depicted on the en route chart. [Figure 3] MCAs are established in all cases where obstacles intervene to prevent pilots from maintaining obstacle clearance during a normal climb to a higher MEA after passing a point beyond which the higher MEA applies. The same protected en route area vertical obstacle clearance requirements for the primary and secondary areas are considered in the determination of the MCA.
Aircraft IFR En Route Altitudes
Figure 6. Minimum crossing altitude (MCA)
The standard for determining the MCA is based upon the following climb gradients and is computed from the flight altitude:
  • Sea level through 5,000 feet MSL—150 feet per NM
  • 5000 feet through 10,000 feet MSL—120 feet per NM
  • 10,000 feet MSL and over—100 feet per NM
To determine the MCA seen on an en route chart, the distance from the obstacle to the fix is computed from the point where the centerline of the en route course in the direction of flight intersects the farthest displacement from the fix. [Figure 7] When a change of altitude is involved with a course change, course guidance must be provided if the change of altitude is more than 1,500 feet and/or if the course change is more than 45°, although there is an exception to this rule. In some cases, course changes of up to 90° may be approved without course guidance provided that no obstacles penetrate the established MEA requirement of the previous airway or route segment. Outside United States airspace, pilots may encounter different flight procedures regarding MCA and transitioning from one MEA to a higher MEA. In this case, pilots are expected to be at the higher MEA crossing the fix, similar to an MCA. Pilots must thoroughly review flight procedure differences when flying outside United States airspace. On IFR en route low altitude charts, routes and associated data outside the conterminous United States are shown for transitional purposes only and are not part of the high altitude jet route and RNAV route systems. [Figure 8]
Aircraft IFR En Route Altitudes
Figure 7. Minimum crossing altitude (MCA) determination point
Aircraft IFR En Route Altitudes
Figure 8. En route chart minimum crossing altitude data (outside of the U.S.)

Minimum IFR Altitude (MIA)

The MIA for operations is prescribed in 14 CFR Part 91. These MIAs are published on aeronautical charts and prescribed in 14 CFR Part 95 for airways and routes, and in 14 CFR Part 97 for standard instrument approach procedures. If no applicable minimum altitude is prescribed in 14 CFR Parts 95 or 97, the following MIA applies: In designated mountainous areas, 2,000 feet above the highest obstacle within a horizontal distance of 4 NM from the course to be flown; or other than mountainous areas, 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle within a horizontal distance of 4 NM from the course to be flown; or as otherwise authorized by the Administrator or assigned by ATC. MIAs are not flight checked for communication.

Minimum Vectoring Altitudes (MVA)

MVAs are established for use by ATC when radar ATC is exercised. The MVA provides 1,000 feet of clearance above the highest obstacle in non-mountainous areas and 2,000 feet above the highest obstacle in designated mountainous areas. Because of the ability to isolate specific obstacles, some MVAs may be lower than MEAs, MOCAs, or other minimum altitudes depicted on charts for a given location. While being radar vectored, IFR altitude assignments by ATC are normally at or above the MVA.
Air traffic controllers use MVAs only when they are assured an adequate radar return is being received from the aircraft. Charts depicting MVAs are available to controllers and have recently become available to pilots. They can be found at digital_products/mva_mia/ Situational Awareness is always important, especially when being radar vectored during a climb into an area with progressively higher MVA sectors, similar to the concept of MCA. Except where diverse vector areas have been established, when climbing, pilots should not be vectored into a sector with a higher MVA unless at or above the next sector’s MVA. Where lower MVAs are required in designated mountainous areas to achieve compatibility with terminal routes or to permit vectoring to an instrument approach procedure, 1,000 feet of obstacle clearance may be authorized with the use of Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR). The MVA provides at least 300 feet above the floor of controlled airspace. The MVA charts are developed to the maximum radar range. Sectors provide separation from terrain and obstructions. Each MVA chart has sectors large enough to accommodate vectoring of aircraft within the sector at the MVA. [Figure 9]
Aircraft IFR En Route Altitudes
Figure 9. MVA chart

IFR Cruising Altitude or Flight Level

In controlled airspace, pilots must maintain the altitude or flight level assigned by ATC, although if the ATC clearance assigns “VFR conditions on-top,” an altitude or flight level as prescribed by 14 CFR Part 91, § 91.159 must be maintained. In uncontrolled airspace (except while in a holding pattern of two minutes or less or while turning) if operating an aircraft under IFR in level cruising flight, an appropriate altitude as depicted in the legend of IFR en route high and low altitude charts must be maintained. [Figure 10]
Aircraft IFR En Route Altitudes
Figure 10. Cruising altitude or flight level
When operating on an IFR flight plan below 18,000 feet MSL in accordance with a VFR-on-top clearance, any VFR cruising altitude appropriate to the direction of flight between the MEA and 18,000 feet MSL may be selected that allows the flight to remain in VFR conditions. Any change in altitude must be reported to ATC, and pilots must comply with all other IFR reporting procedures. VFR-on-top is not authorized in Class A airspace. When cruising below 18,000 feet MSL, the altimeter must be adjusted to the current setting, as reported by a station within 100 NM of your position. In areas where weather-reporting stations are more than 100 NM from the route, the altimeter setting of a station that is closest may be used.
During IFR flight, ATC advises flights periodically of the current altimeter setting, but it remains the responsibility of the pilot or flight crew to update altimeter settings in a timely manner. Altimeter settings and weather information are available from weather reporting facilities operated or approved by the U.S. National Weather Service, or a source approved by the FAA. Some commercial operators have the authority to act as a government-approved source of weather information, including altimeter settings, through certification under the FAA’s Enhanced Weather Information System.
Flight level operations at or above 18,000 feet MSL require the altimeter to be set to 29.92 inches of mercury (” Hg). A flight level (FL) is defined as a level of constant atmospheric pressure related to a reference datum of 29.92 ” Hg. Each flight level is stated in three digits that represent hundreds of feet. For example, FL 250 represents an altimeter indication of 25,000 feet. Conflicts with traffic operating below 18,000 feet MSL may arise when actual altimeter settings along the route of flight are lower than 29.92 ” Hg. Therefore, 14 CFR Part 91, § 91.121 specifies the lowest usable flight levels for a given altimeter setting range.

Reduced Vertical Separation Minimums (RSVM)

Reduced vertical separation minimums (RVSM) is a term used to describe the reduction of the standard vertical separation required between aircraft flying at levels between FL 290 (29,000 feet) and FL 410 (41,000 feet) from 2,000 feet to 1,000 feet. The purpose; therefore, increases the number of aircraft that can safely fly in a particular volume of airspace. Historically, standard vertical separation was 1,000 feet from the surface to FL 290, 2,000 feet from FL 290 to FL 410 and 4,000 feet above this. This was because the accuracy of the pressure altimeter (used to determine altitude) decreases with height. Over time, air data computers (ADCs) combined with altimeters have become more accurate and autopilots more adept at maintaining a set level; therefore, it became apparent that for many modern aircraft, the 2,000-foot separation was not required . It was, therefore, proposed by ICAO that this be reduced to 1,000 feet.
Between 1997 and 2005, RVSM was implemented in all of Europe, North Africa, Southeast Asia, North America, South America, and over the North Atlantic, South Atlantic, and Pacific Oceans. The North Atlantic implemented initially in March 1997, at FL 330 through FL 370. The entire western hemisphere implemented RVSM FL 290–FL 410 on January 20, 2005.
Only aircraft with specially certified altimeters and autopilots may fly in RVSM airspace, otherwise the aircraft must fly lower or higher than the airspace, or seek special exemption from the requirements. Additionally, aircraft operators (airlines or corporate operators) must receive specific approval from the aircraft’s state of registry in order to conduct operations in RVSM airspace. Non-RVSM approved aircraft may transit through RVSM airspace provided they are given continuous climb throughout the designated airspace, and 2,000 feet vertical separation is provided at all times between the non-RVSM flight and all others for the duration of the climb/descent.
Critics of the change were concerned that by reducing the space between aircraft, RVSM may increase the number of mid-air collisions and conflicts. In the ten years since RVSM was first implemented, not one collision has been attributed to RVSM. In the United States, this program was known as the Domestic Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (DRVSM).

Cruise Clearance

The term “cruise” may be used instead of “maintain” to assign a block of airspace to an aircraft. The block extends from the minimum IFR altitude up to and including the altitude that is specified in the cruise clearance. On a cruise clearance, you may level off at any intermediate altitude within this block of airspace. You are allowed to climb or descend within the block at your own discretion. However, once you start descent and verbally report leaving an altitude in the block to ATC, you may not return to that altitude without an additional ATC clearance. A cruise clearance also authorizes you to execute an approach at the destination airport.

Lowest Usable Flight Level

When the barometric pressure is 31.00 ” Hg or less and pilots are flying below 18,000 feet MSL, use the current reported altimeter setting. When an aircraft is en route on an instrument flight plan, air traffic controllers furnish this information at least once while the aircraft is in the controller’s area of jurisdiction. When the barometric pressure exceeds 31.00 ” Hg, the following procedures are placed in effect by NOTAM defining the geographic area affected: Set 31.00 ” Hg for en route operations below 18,000 feet MSL and maintain this setting until beyond the affected area. ATC issues actual altimeter settings and advises pilots to set 31.00 ” Hg in their altimeter, for en route operations below 18,000 feet MSL in affected areas. If an aircraft has the capability of setting the current altimeter setting and operating into airports with the capability of measuring the current altimeter setting, no additional restrictions apply. At or above 18,000 feet MSL, altimeters should be set to 29.92 ” Hg (standard setting). Additional procedures exist beyond the en route phase of flight.
The lowest usable flight level is determined by the atmospheric pressure in the area of operation. As local altimeter settings fall below 29.92 ” Hg, pilots operating in Class A airspace must cruise at progressively higher indicated altitudes to ensure separation from aircraft operating in the low altitude structure as follows:
Current Altimeter SettingLowest Usable Flight Level
29.92 or higher180
29.91 to 29.42185
29.41 to 28.92190
28.91 to 28.42195
28.41 to 27.91200

When the minimum altitude, as prescribed in 14 CFR Part 91, § 91.159 and 91.177, is above 18,000 feet MSL, the lowest usable flight level is the flight level equivalent of the minimum altitude plus the number of feet specified according to the lowest flight level correction factor as follows:

Altimeter SettingCorrection Factor
29.92 or higher
29.91 to 29.42500 feet
29.41 to 28.921,000 feet
28.91 to 28.421,500 feet
28.41 to 27.912,000 feet
27.91 to 27.422,500 feet

Operations in Other Countries

When flight crews transition from the U.S. NAS to another country’s airspace, they should be aware of differences not only in procedures but also airspace. For example, when flying into Canada as depicted in Figure 11, notice the change from transition level (QNE) to transition altitude (QNH) when flying north-bound into the Moncton flight information region (FIR).

Aircraft IFR En Route Altitudes
Figure 11. Altimeter setting changes
Operations in international airspace demand that pilots are aware of, and understand the use of, the three types of altimeter settings. Most overseas airports give altimeter settings in hectopascals (hPa) (millibars). Therefore, it is imperative that pilots or on-board equipment are able to accurately convert inches of mercury to hPa, or hPa to inches of mercury.

Altitude Above Ground (QFE)

A local altimeter setting equivalent to the barometric pressure measured at an airport altimeter datum, usually signifying the approach end of the runway is in use. At the airport altimeter datum, an altimeter set to QFE indicates zero altitude. If required to use QFE altimetry, altimeters are set to QFE while operating at or below the transition altitude and below the transition level. On the airport, the altimeter will read “0” feet.

Barometric Pressure for Standard Altimeter Setting (QNE)

Use the altimeter setting (en route) at or above the transition altitude (FL 180 in the United States). The altimeter setting is always 29.92 inches of mercury/1013.2 hPa for a QNE altitude. Transition levels differ from country to country and pilots should be particularly alert when making a climb or descent in a foreign area.

Barometric Pressure for Local Altimeter Setting (QNH)

A local altimeter setting equivalent to the barometric pressure measured at an airport altimeter datum and corrected to sea level pressure. At the airport altimeter datum, an altimeter set to QNH indicates airport elevation above mean sea level (MSL). Altimeters are set to QNH while operating at and below the transition altitude and below the transition level.
For flights in the vicinity of airports, express the vertical position of aircraft in terms of QNH or QFE at or below the transition altitude and in terms of QNE at or above the transition level. While passing through the transition layer, express vertical position in terms of FLs when ascending and in terms of altitudes when descending.
When an aircraft that receives a clearance as number one to land completes its approach using QFE, express the vertical position of the aircraft in terms of height above the airport elevation during that portion of its flight for which you may use QFE.
It is important to remember that most pressure altimeters are subject to mechanical, elastic, temperature, and installation errors. In addition, extremely cold temperature differences may also require altimeter correction factors as appropriate.