Elementary Eights | Airplane Ground Reference Maneuvers

Elementary eights are a family of maneuvers in which each individual maneuver is one that the airplane tracks a path over the ground similar to the shape of a figure…

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Airplane S-Turns | Ground Reference Maneuvers

An S-turn is a ground reference maneuver in which the airplane’s ground track resembles two opposite but equal half-circles on each side of a selected ground-based straight-line reference. [Figure] This…

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Turns Around a Point | Airplane Ground Reference Maneuvers

Turns around a point are a logical extension of both the rectangular course and S-turns across a road. The maneuver is a 360° constant radius turn around a single ground-based…

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Rectangular Course | Airplane Ground Reference Maneuvers

A principal ground reference maneuver is the rectangular course. [Figure] The rectangular course is a training maneuver in which the airplane maintains an equal distance from all sides of the…

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Drift and Ground Track Control – Airplane Ground Reference Maneuver

Wind direction and velocity variations create the need for flightpath corrections during a ground reference maneuver. In a similar way that water currents affect the progress of a boat or…

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Maneuvering by Reference to Ground Objects

Ground reference maneuvers train the pilot to accurately place the airplane in relationship to specific references and maintain a desired ground track. While vision is the most utilized sense, other…

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Ground Reference Maneuvers

Initial pilot training requires that a pilot understand the relationship of the various flight controls pressure inputs to the resulting attitudes of the airplane. This allows a pilot to develop…

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