# Ground Reference Maneuvers

## Elementary Eights | Airplane Ground Reference Maneuvers

Elementary eights are a family of maneuvers in which each individual maneuver is one that the airplane tracks a path over the ground similar to the shape of a figure eight. There are various types of eights, progressing from the elementary to advanced types. Each eight is intended to develop a pilot’s flight control coordination […]

## Airplane S-Turns | Ground Reference Maneuvers

An S-turn is a ground reference maneuver in which the airplane’s ground track resembles two opposite but equal half-circles on each side of a selected ground-based straight-line reference. [Figure] This ground reference maneuver presents a practical application for the correction of wind during a turn. S-turns The objectives of S-turns across a road (or line)

## Turns Around a Point | Airplane Ground Reference Maneuvers

Turns around a point are a logical extension of both the rectangular course and S-turns across a road. The maneuver is a 360° constant radius turn around a single ground-based reference point. [Figure] The principles are the same in any turning ground reference maneuver—higher groundspeeds require steeper banks and slower ground speeds require shallower banks.

## Rectangular Course | Airplane Ground Reference Maneuvers

A principal ground reference maneuver is the rectangular course. [Figure] The rectangular course is a training maneuver in which the airplane maintains an equal distance from all sides of the selected rectangular references. The maneuver is accomplished to replicate the airport traffic pattern that an airplane typically maneuvers while landing. While performing the rectangular course

## Drift and Ground Track Control – Airplane Ground Reference Maneuver

Wind direction and velocity variations create the need for flightpath corrections during a ground reference maneuver. In a similar way that water currents affect the progress of a boat or ship, wind directly influences the path that the airplane travels in reference to the ground. Whenever the airplane is in flight, the movement of the

## Maneuvering by Reference to Ground Objects

Ground reference maneuvers train the pilot to accurately place the airplane in relationship to specific references and maintain a desired ground track. While vision is the most utilized sense, other senses are actively involved at different levels. For example, the amount of pressure needed to overcome flight control surface forces provides tactile feedback as to

## Ground Reference Maneuvers

During initial training, pilots learn how various flight control pressure inputs affect the airplane. After achieving a sufficient level of competence, the pilot is ready to apply this skill and maintain the airplane, not only at the correct attitude and power configuration, but also along an appropriate course relative to objects on the ground. This

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